0   Cognition

				Aproach to all objects is by cognition.

					Udo Frentzen 2016/17

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				0 1		Remarks

				1a)	Definition
				1b)	Time of writing

				0 2		Standards

				2a)	Values as standards
				2b)	Truth in cognition

				0 3		Object

				3a)	Focus
				3b)	Denotation
				3c)	Observation
				3d)	Description
				3e)	Deliberation
				3f)	Interpretation
				3g)	Evaluation
				3h)	Documentation
				3i)	Propositional support
				3j)	Publication
				3k)	Public discussion
				3l)	Problem solving
				3m)	Conflict solving
				3n)	Development

				0 4		Relation

				4a)	Relations
				4b)	Information
				4c)	Transmission
				4d)	Medium

				0 5		Subject

				5a)	Onto- and phylogenetic development
				5b)	The senses
				5c)	Emotions
				5d)	Mental capabilities
				5e)	Experience
				5f)	Way of life
				5g)	Self-understanding
				5h)	Historical factors
				5i)	Schools of thought
				5j)	Present day trends
				5k)	Institutional factors
				5l)	Codetermining factors
				5m)	Inhibiting factors
				5n)	Ethics

				0 6		Summary

				6a)	Achievements
				6b)	Failures
				6c)	Planetary catastrophes


					0 1   Remarks

1a) Cognition is transformation of forms of being into forms of consciousness.
Its components are therefore the object, the subject and a relation between them.
It is a mental-psychic-biological constructed representative model of an object.
Representation is by bio-chemical-electro-magnetic processes in the central nervous system.
1a1) At center stands the item at hand throughout all scientific, contemplative and aesthetic research.
1a2) Cognition is with autonomy of body and mind a precondition to seeing, thinking and acting.
It is as data input the first step towards mental processing and data output, which rely on it in sequence.
It is a bottleneck of skills and its tools have to be studied and practiced in all endeavours.
1a3) Main intent is to shed light on an object and to investigate further for a more accurate description.
Epistemic research goals are knowledge, sound assumptions, tenets and working hypotheses and avoi-
dance of errors, as they multiply along publication to teaching to applications into an inhibiting factor.
1a4) Scaled up intent is promotion of the spirit of man and integrity of nature.
Increase in overall comprehension with responsibilities, means of enlightenment and results will gain the 
capability for long term survival in changing cosmic environments.
1a5) It is open ended. There is no definite, cognition exhausted object and most reveal themselves as 
highly complex and interlinked by causal chains.
1a6) Its sources are questions and searches. Basics are: What is nature? Who is man? Who is God?
1a7) Its domain is
   a7,1) In place from the micro- to macro-cosmos.
   a7,2) In time from the beginning to end of the universe.
   a7,3) In scope throughout all layers of reality, the physical, psychological, mental and spiritual.
   a7,4) In focus throughout all content features and environments.
1a8) Its process runs from the unknown to the known, simple to complex and illusionary to possible.
1a9) Its pragmatic status can be object surpassing, adequate or inhibited.
1a10) Limits to cognition are set by observer's position, precision of mental and material tools, conditions 
of space, time, matter, forces, characteristics, relations and codetermining factors.
1a11) The author's position is reflective, defensive, hopeful, literary description and evaluation.
1a12) Definition of truth for the essay is: Have all factors of cognition been considered?
1a13) Standards of truth are designed to break through inhibiting factors like special interests of cogni-
tion, publication and application, as values are always in conflict with ‘statesmanship’, regarding power 
tools as only collective reality creating, molding, controlling, securing means of an historic achievement.

1b) Time of writing is the beginning 21st century
1b1) Art historically: Post Modernism, a society without an ethical dimension, but with knowledge usur-
ped by power, has not even a symbol of the emancipation of man by telos of mind left standing.
1b2) Symbolically: a Welfare Garden, a society with people feeding on a poisoned apple a day, but not 
allowed to eat from the fruits of the other trees: humanity, maturity, reason, faith and ethics.
1b3) Sociologically: Opportunity for Careers, a society of liberal, professional, civilian and administrative 
money making institutions within power networks, but with iron taboos of security, system and basic hu-
man rights like life, health, speech and movement. Mass misery is pushed into the social outskirts.
1b4) Politically: Subjugation of man and nature by power methods of global, scientific, technological, in-
dustrial exploitation will lead to the next planetary catastrophe with possible extinction of mankind.


					0 2     Standards

2a) Values
2a1) The foundations of life, physical, chemical, biological dependencies and capabilities, demanding 
self-preservation and foresight, are guided by respect for the integrities of nature and life.
They give a direction to the course of actions, not to fall back on themselves.
2a2) Man adopts for free self-interpretation as self-set defining, comparing value and standard: human 
dignity, being universal, invariable, inalienable, codifiable, falsifiable and livable.
2a3) Universal values apply to the past, present and predictable future on a global, historical scale.
2a4) Primary universal spiritual, human, natural values are love, dignity and integrity of nature.
They are therefore also primary values and standards of cognition.
2a5) Secondary universal spiritual, human, natural value is truth.
Investigating an object, truth is in respect to God a comprehensive analysis towards innocence, in re-
spect to man and nature a comprehensive analysis in spirit of man and in integrity of nature.
Their research adding each other, they stand on a linked, equal, balanced and cooperating level.
2a6) Tertiary and primary value for society is unity of mankind. It is based on equity and justice.
2a7) Fourth and humanitarian values are freedoms, emancipation and common welfare.
2a8) Professional standards are guidelines of state of the art field knowledge and performance.
2a9) Item specific standards are bench marks of item specific characteristics and relations.
2a10) All values are connected by an unbroken interlinked tree structure.

2b) Truth along the steps of cognition requires
2b1) Preconditions
   b1,1) Physiological autonomy of body and mind with freedom of truth.
   b1,2) Cultural competence in language, mathematics, logic, method and data processing.
   b1,3) Approach with circumspection against a background of vast non-knowledge as most objects 
   awaits a long history of corrections and improvements. 90% of truth is truth finding.
2b2) Questioning
   b1,1) Statement of social-epistemological intentions, conceptions, hoped and feared for results.
   b1,2) Definition of object of study, question, assumptions and range of possible answers.
2b3) Observation
   b3,1) Intruding, observing, investigating search and exhaustion of available means.
   b3,2) Professional accuracy of sensual perception, technical devices and mental conception.
2b4) Denotation, description
   b4,1) Equivalence of object, term, word, sign and transmitted message.
   b4,2) Complete description of an object with its necessary content features and complexity, including 
   positive-negative properties, applications and risks in balanced dimensions of nature, man and God.
   b4,3) Confidence of accuracy can be cartesian ideal, corresponding, abductive or pragmatic.
2b5) Deliberation, interpretation, evaluation, documentation, propositional support
   b5,1) Psychic-mental true treatment, applying subjective, conscious, organized mental processing pro-
   ducts to an objectively placed item.
   b5,2) Mental-object true treatment, molding an object according to object related criteria.
2b6) Publication, public discussion
   b6,1) Intentions to repel corruption and to enlighten issue and audience.
   b6,2) Address of all major present day issues.
   b6,3) Languages of His Word in theology, poetry in humanities and mathematics in natural sciences.
   b6,4) Management of knowledge by collecting, storing, reviewing and spreading research results.
2b7) Problem solving, conflict solving, development
   b7,1) Intentions to serve, conciliate and amend for the wellbeing of man and nature.
   b7,2) Correspondence of intentions, conceptions, communication and actions.
   b7,3) Development of cognitive potentials by
	b7,3,1) Reduction of inhibiting factors like pseudo-mental products.
	b7,3,2) Successive heuristic step by step approximations of descriptions to reality.
	b7,3,3) Raising of standards towards expanded capabilities in scope, range and accuracy.
	b7,3,4) Enlargement of truth's and ethics' freedoms.
	b7,3,5) Enlargement of overall comprehension from responsibilities to means to results.


					0 3		Object

3a) Focus
Search and focus concentrate on the item at hand, its identity and property.
It is stripped as far as possible from prior assumptions, systematic knowledge and context.
It is a basic fact, a single unit of an appearance with a single property.
It is the smallest unit of observation, having been handled by eg fixture, labeling and modulation.
3a1) It has identity by
   a1,1) Pointedness through focus.
   a1,2) Limits in form, space and time.
   a1,3) Identifiers like discreteness, distinctiveness, individuality and mappability.
   a1,4) Isolation through cutout from its neighbors, environment and background.
3a2) It has a property by
   a2,1) A characteristic status or behavior.
   a2,2) A relation in interaction with another object.
   a2,3) There is a physical, human, spiritual in-external force as cause, responsible for generation, pre-
   servation, alteration and transmission of a property with action and reaction.
   a2,4) Meaning in a cultural context.
3a3) Composite focus
It is taken repeatedly into focus and scanned for refinement of details and widening of panorama.
   a3,1) Shift in place, eg conditions of background and environment.
   a3,2) Shift in time, eg behavior under in-external forces.
   a3,3) Shift in scale, eg into the micro- and macrocosmic.
   a3,4) Shift in range, eg back and forward extrapolation.
   a3,5) Shift into macro-structures, eg with conglomerate and mass effects.
3a4) Conglomerate focus
Conglomerate items with several basic items are divided into their parts and focused
   a4,1) Each basic item separately.
   a4,2) The conglomerate item as a whole.
   a4,3) Their interdependencies and -actions.
   a4,4) Their synergistic-antagonistic effects.

3b) Observation
Observation takes up raw data from an identified item in focus to sensual perception to mental conscious-
ness, where they are registered and stored in short and long term memory.
It takes the object into focus from all sides with a line of view for every conceivable property to reach
across all layers of reality and their dimensions.
It comprised the complete track of foci as a field-span of attention and space-time cutout of reality.
3b1) The unprejudiced focus alternates with existing knowledge, going back and forth between all steps 
from focus to evaluation in a feedback loop and can be interrupted and redirected at every point.
The item is recognized in space-time with
   b1,1) Qualitative semiotic, semantic and contextual meaning.
   b1,2) Quantitative magnitude on an eg nominal, ordinal, interval or rational scale.
   b1,3) The raw data are collected in a statement, table or picture as answer to the initial question.
3b2) They represent uncovering of new knowledge by a more specific registration of a property.
Registered are eg the old or new, expected or unexpected, normal or exceptional.
Uncovered are the open or hidden, easy or difficult to detect, concrete or illusionary.
Indicators like inconsistencies or atmosphere point at higher order variables or camouflaged intentions.
3b3) Mode of observation can be eg incidental, planned, systematic and hypothesis testing.
3b4) Accuracy of observation can be refined by eg improved performance to supersede previous results.
Technical devices enlarge the range of physical perception to the mico- and macro-cosmos.
They accelerate input, processing and output of large multi-media data volumes.
3b5) Errors are by eg subjective factors, technical accuracy, statistical variation and their multiplication.
3b6) Non-observables are eg past, concealed present, future and inaccessible entities.


3c) Denotation
Denotation attaches to the item in focus a term with a phonetic signal and a written sign.
The atomic item expands into a dynamic, multi-dimensional construction.
3c1) Term construction
   c1,1) It is derived by interaction of objective item, mental term, linguistic word and semiotic sign.
   c1,2) It is derived out of a necessary attribute of the item to be representative, intelligible, reflective, 
   objective as well as clear, short, precise, specific, ordered, neutral, compatible and not alone negative.
   c1,3) It is by semantic being eg constative, representative, regulative or expressive, by semantic func-
   tion eg explicative, expressive, instrumental, moralistic or evaluative.
   c1,4) It carries mostly statements of faith by divine inspiration, of maturity by explication of human-so-
   cial objects and of reason by explanation of natural objects.
3c2) Objective item
   c2,1) It is listed with all its properties in intention (content), extension (cases) and their relations.
   c2,2) It is typified according to its primary real semantic content.
   c2,3) It is classified under the next higher genus and by art differences to become a part in an open, 
   heterogenous taxonomic systems of all objects. It allows one like all treatment from search to applica-
   tion with eg standardization, methodization and economization. Major classes are
	c2,3,1) Spiritual objects with the categories non-violence and address of major issues.
	c2,3,2) Human objects with the categories content and appearance; universals of place and time; 
	presentation in public, medium, situation, context and environment; rooms of freedom, capabilities 
	and boundaries; non-knowledge, uncertainties, risks and dangers; inhibiting factors.
	c2,3,3) Natural objects with the categories quantity, quality, relation and modality.
3c3) Word
   c3,1) It is part of a competent language, an open, heterogenous system, being recognized, formal, in-
   tersubjective, neutral, stable, functional with vocabulary, phraseology, pronunciation and grammar.
   Its vocabulary is organic, multilevel in phantasy, comprehension, knowledge, realities and dimensions.
   c3,2) Scientific terminology expands common usage by eg field specific definitions, theoretical con-
   cepts, function assignments and unobservable entities to become precise and non-contradictory.
3c4) Sign
   c4,1) It is part of a reservoir of signs like icons, indices and symbols, an open, heterogenous system, 
   corresponding to a competent language to carry information about the item from A to B.
   c4,2) Encoded signs can be technically processed to communicate in any medium over any distance.
3c5) Compatibility
Object, term, word and sign correspond 1:1 in content, representation, construction, explication, logical 
space, grammar and sign architecture.

3d) Description
A complete description of an object constitutes its intellectual data base of present knowledge.
It states the author's position with intent and issue specific definition of truth.
3d1) Text
   d1,1) It is out of phonemes, morphemes, lexemes, syntax, pragmatics, semantics and linguistics.
   d1,2) It forms eg atomic and conglomerate terms, sentences, listings, definitions, axioms, analyses, 
   conclusions, laws, prognoses, instructions, themes, theories, narrations and fiction.
   d1,3) Paralinguistic are eg sound, volume, intonation, pitch, range, rate and body language.
3d2) Necessary content
   d2,1) Natural, human and spiritual forces with causal chains and effects.
   d2,2) Phenomenological properties with characteristics and relations.
   d2,3) Functions, states, structures, processes, paths, mechanisms, events and effects.
   d2,4) Classification and categorization.
   d2,5) Reality, being eg spiritual, natural, human, mental, psychical, emotional, pragmatic or fantastic.
   d2,6) Environments, eg connotations, situation, communication, theme discussion, tradition, praxis, 
   context, philosophy of research, mental horizon, world view, reception and political-social history.
   d2,7) Logical and mathematical spaces can be defined by eg set of items, subsets, axioms of exist-
   ence, characteristics, relations with eg functions, combination rules, hierarchies, extensions, range of 
   validity, constants, conditions, where all preserve identities, consistency and non-contradiction.
3d3) Descriptions as tools of language are sensitive to paradigms and by standards of truth a distortion 
of a single content feature against the asserted intent becomes deceptive.


3e) Deliberation
Deliberation, a disposition center for feedback loops between all steps of cognition, picks up description 
data to process them in psychic-mental true treatment, applying subjective, conscious, organized mental 
processing products to ascertain the best path of action.
Mental processing products after description generate a conception and intention, memorization, mental 
operations, reflection, combination of conception-intention and a design of expression.
3e1) Tasks are
   e1,1) Checking of results from observation and description for validity.
   e1,2) Initiation of interpretation and evaluation.
   e1,3) Realization of a project via planning, decision and implementation.
   e1,4) Education of professional fields and the public.
3e2) Mode can be eg incidental, planned, systematic and hypothesis testing.
Developmental goals are achieved by long term, systematic, institutionalized application.
3e3) Esprit demanded are for
   e3,1) Imagination to envision possible search results, significance, applications and impacts.
   e3,2) Rationality with object true treatment along professional, object related standards.
   e3,3) Standards of truth to live up to ethical requirements.

3f) Interpretation
It draws heavily on antique and medieval scholarship and present day natural sciences.
3f1) Exegesis
Exegesis lets His Word being grasped by His Grace in faith and sound theology.
At the center stand word and sense in direct language to further adequate reception and response.
   f1,1) Main intent is empirical, aesthetical and spiritual reconstruction, interpretation and evaluation of 
   testimonials and the scriptures (depositum fidei) by a diversity of methods.
   f1,2) Text reconstruction aims at recovery of the original or furthest back wording, language, docu-
   ment, illustration, commentary, distribution, version, translation and media praxis.
   f1,3) Situational analysis describes the immediate psychological, communicational, communal, social, 
   economic, scientific, political, zeitgeist, ritual, theological conditions and context of place and time.
   f1,4) Text analysis describes form, style, content, semantics, grammar, syntax, diction, structures, re-
   lations, models, references, creations, paradigmatic and syntagmatic lines, semiotics, pragmatics, 
   mediums, performances, artistic renderings, position, logic, function, usages, variations, statistics, co-
   herence, elasticity, centricity, stability, uniqueness, aesthetics, entropy, context and inter-context.
   f1,5) Text history describes its conditions, traditions, editions, paths, interpretations and influences.
   f1,6) Text comparison describes its traditional, cultural and inter-confessional contexts.
   f1,7) Text Interpretation
   ◦  It highlights the intent of the author with his perspective, biography and real life conditions.
   ◦  Teleologically it describes theme, sense, purpose and spirit of the word.
   ◦  Tropologically it extracts life experiences and moral guidelines for praxis.
   ◦  Typologically it connects events of the Old Testament with those of Christ.
   ◦  Eschatologically it focuses on future events up to the last judgment.
   ◦  Femininely it eliminates prejudices because of origin, gender, age, race and culture.
   ◦  Considered deductively and inductively, restrictively and extensively are place, time, type, commo-
      nality, generality, similarity, analogy, probability, possibility, functionality and complexity.
   f1,8) Assisting are clarifications, outline of limits, adaptions to languages and cultures.
   f1,9) Assisting are archeological findings and scientific methods of all fields.
   f1,10) Evaluation is by standards of accuracy, plausibility, credibility, sincerity and significance for eg 
   errors, gaps, add-ons, changes, scope of interpretation, corruption, instrumentalization and deception.
   f1,11) Development of teaching
	f1,11,1) In study by opening up of new sources, advances in scientific-technological knowledge, 
	raising of standards, public discussions and new grasping of issues.
	f1,11,2) In inter-confessional dialogs by rectification, compensation, reconciliation, hospitality, tole-
	rance, integrative praxis, respect of human rights and recognition of interdependencies to arrive at
	incorporating statements of faith with superseding, generalizing und unifying principles.


3f2) Hermeneutics of secular verbal, written and multi-media communications
Hermeneutics let secular expressions become understandable in maturity.
An objective, semantic context is visualized in a subjective mind for mental processing and response.
   f2,1) Main intent is empirical, aesthetical and human reconstruction, interpretation and evaluation of 
   the selected material from author's intention to reception history by a diversity of methods.
   f2,2) Text, context and situation reconstruction and analysis are comparable to those of exegesis.
   f2,3) Text interpretation
	 ◦ It highlights the intent of the author with his perspective, self-understanding and background.
	 ◦ Truth of documented facts, fictional characterizations, similes and allusions.
	 ◦ Rules of spelling, punctuation, hyphenation, grammar and diction.
	 ◦ Form like documentation or fiction as roman, short story, drama and poetry.
	 ◦ Style of presentation like description, narration, persuasion and accusation.
	 ◦ Elements like protagonist, antagonist, narrator, plot, conflict, theme and mood.
	 ◦ Figurative language like eg metaphor, hyperbole, personification, allegory and irony.
	 ◦ Structures like repetition, alteration, contrast, frame, isocolon, hyperbation and episterophe.
	 ◦ Levels of meaning like denotation, symbol, allegory and metalepsis.
	 ◦ Morals like quintessence and behavioral advice.
	 ◦ Emancipative drives like investigative journalism and social activism.
	 ◦ Existentials as basic requirements and conditions of human life.
	 ◦ Situations with options, hopes and hypothetical events.
	 ◦ Prognostics like forecasts and warnings.
	 ◦ Criticism of forces, institutions, events, environments and ways of thought.
   f2,4) Art epochs designate the abstract, symbolical, common cultural characteristics of an artist, group
   of artists, techniques, tendencies, schools, regions and social contexts to systematize history of art.
   f2,5) Reception history traces the retrospective interpretations of cultural events in the communicative
   chains of an author's publications, audiences' analyses, discussions and responses from all back-
   grounds over time. The author's intentions can be accepted, negotiated, re-interpreted and opposed.
   They can influence the work of subsequent authors and the propagation of thoughts in eg awareness 
   of issues, self-understanding, life style, zeitgeist, standards of man-society and history of mind.
3f3) Natural philosophy about phenomena of nature
Natural philosophy lets phenomena of nature become explainable in reason.
   f3,1) Main intent in exploration of the cosmos is empirical laboratory reconstruction, interpretation and 
   evaluation of its natural phenomena from matter to plant, animal and human life by scientific methods.
   f3,2) It shows natural-human causes-effects in all aspects with possible applications and misuses.
   Formal nomological deduction requires empirical content, law likeness, derivability and truth.
   f3,3) Scientific methods with hypothesis, analysis, synthesis and controlled experimental observation
   and deliberation gain qualitative-quantitative knowledge about forces, characteristics and relations.
   f3,4) Forces are responsible for past, present and future properties of objects.
	f3,4,1) Physical forces are the strong, weak, electro-dynamic, gravitational ones in space-time.
	f3,4,2) Bio-chemical forces lead over evolutionary times to growth with differentiation of functions.
	f3,4,3) Human-social forces show themselves in their expressions by communication and action.
   f3,5) Forces extend along a chain of causality
	f3,5,1) Cause is a sensory confirmed deterministic or probabilistic regularity.
	f3,5,2) Mechanism proceeds in a directed, transient path sequence of pre- to post-ceding events.
	f3,5,3) Effect is the final observed result, which can lead in a wider context to further consequences.
   f3,6) Laws of nature relate a force and property qualitatively-quantitatively to its dependent variables.
   f3,7) Universal validity of laws is assumed by enumerative-inductive reasoning until falsified.
   f3,8) Conditions delineate co-determining factors and limits of validity.
   f3,9) Predictions of forces' and objects' behavior are possible under comparative conditions.
   f3,10) System of natural phenomena is a two or more forces dynamically interacting, initial closed or
   open structured state, going via several mechanisms towards a final steady state or labile equilibrium.
   f3,11) The logical structure of the sciences comprises a compendium of comparative laws of nature.
   f3,12) Explanations can be refined by more explicative interpretation and supersede previous results.


3g) Evaluation
Human expressions and man made objects in freedom of choice with positive or negative consequences 
are evaluated by standardized values to generate objective, predictable and common benefits.
Evaluation is the most relevant step of cognition in the feedback loops from focus to applications.
3g1) Higher values guard basic existentials of life. Lower order ones become increasingly item specific.
3g2) General responsibility rests with the sovereign, the people, on a global, timeless scale.
3g3) Responsibilities are shared according to contributing parts by eg the researcher, developer, politi-
cal-social sponsor, producer, sales person, end user and overall affected general public.
3g4) Re-evaluation is self-critically correcting disregarded and changed object requirements.

3h) Documentation
Documentation records the results of all steps of cognition on a physical-chemical-biological substrate for 
storage and communication as eg artefact, text, sound track, drawing, picture, video, multi-media, perfor-
mance, model, simulation and scenario.
3h1) Stated with it are author, place, time, conviction, intent, definition of truth, approach, perspective, 
devices, utilities, methods, range of error, references, conditions, context, comments and provisions.
3h2) Storage in public-private libraries preserves records to be durably safe, retrievable and accessible.
3h3) Exponentially growing knowledge is kept in data banks of the specialized professional fields.
3h4) A selection of information is archived as relevant records over historic time spans.

3i) Propositional support
Copies of the documentation are handed to peers in the professional field for review.
Evaluation ranges from support to advice, comment, reflection, concern, objection. criticism to rejection.
Confirmation of scientific facts ranges from eg probable, plausible, likely, poor to flawed by criteria of
3i1) Stringency of standards.
3i2) Validity of assumptions.
3i3) Constructability in faith, understanding or explanation.
3i4) Reproducibility by replicative tests.
3i5) Objectivity by 3rd party confirmation.
3i6) Traceability along a line of argumentation.
3i7) Predictability of behavior by eg divine revelation, human intentions and natural forces.
3i8) Non-falsification by a contradicting fact or competing theory.
3i9) Number of confirmations.
3i10) Quality of references.
3i11) Coherence of a system of knowledge by eg analogy, amendment, extrapolation and unification.
3i12) Form, supporting eg content, context and workmanship.
3i13) Controversy highlights eg divergent interests of cognition.

3j) Publication
Publication makes documented and confirmed information available to the general public.
3j1) Publisher
   j1,1) A publisher reviews, edits, stores, reproduces, announces, distributes and markets the material.
   j1,2) He can be eg author, performer, publishing house, speaker of an organization and lone voice.
   j1,3) Medium can be eg flyer, bill board, web posting, daily press, magazine, video, scientific journal, 
   forum discussion, play, concert, underground channel, zeitgeist, rumor and mood.
   j1,4) Recipient can be eg investigator, acute observer, chance witness, local audience, privileged cir-
   cle, affected people, interested parties and the entire population.
3j2) Knowledge
   j2,1) The information is constituted as a fact.
   j2,2) It is the basis of knowledge, an image of reality and capability.
   j2,3) Managed, overseeable knowledge represents the present day mental horizon.
   j2,4) It is utilized in theoretical-practical applications in scientific, commercial, social and political fields.


3k) Public discussion
Pool of issues comprises all phenomena demanding general recognition.
Pool of voices comprises all contributions from the whole spectrum of the population.
All issues are public because of the universals of dignity, truth, knowledge, equality and codetermination.
3k1) Intentions range from investigative effort to information exchange to image fascism.
3k2) Main intent is to embed enlightenment into political-social participation.
Scaled up intent is to arrive at a durable society with long term problem-conflict solving.
3k3) Means, as base pattern, are those of enlightenment: questioning, cognition, description, interpre-
tation, evaluation, publication, design of expression, realization and legal regulation.
Inhibiting factors are overcome by political will, language, presentation, regulation and supervision.
3k4) Decision is the central, radial point, where discussions are bundled to a specific issue, contributions 
for resources are searched for and distributed and the event is recorded in the chronicles.

3l) Problem solving
Problem solving centers on existentials, ranging from daily needs to creeping erosions to catastrophic 
incisions, impairing man's physical-mental-social and natural environment's well being.
3l1) Main intent is to alleviate and to protect against a threatening physical damage.
Scaled up intent is man's self-preservation with sufficient resources in the long term future.
3l2) A workable solution, an adequate mental design of expression to be realized by administrative and 
technical means, is gained out of research and public discussion with 
   l2,1) Human resources from the spectrum of the population with professional experts.
   l2,2) Material resources as required with state of the art materials and equipment.

3m) Conflict solving
Conflict solving centers on social strife out of opposing interests of individuals and social forces with civil 
discontent, unrest, lawlessness and violence against human health, material goods and the environment.
3m1) Main intent is to defuse and protect against acute threats of physical injury and damage.
Scaled up intent is observation of internationally, legally protected human and nature's rights as an aspi-
rational red thread for long term human prospects.
3m2) A workable, ratifiable solution is gained out of public discussion and negotiations in private-public-
international mediation, arbitration, litigation and intervention towards a mutually advantageous rap-
prochement by eg clarification, de-escalation, incentives, compensation, compromise, cooperation, com-
pensation, reconciliation, levelling of inequalities and as a last resort by tribunal and intervention with
   m2,1) Analysis of the social-political constellation.
   m2,2) Legal resources of national constitutions with their bodies of law and international conventions.
   m2,3) Institutional resources of national and international court systems.
   m2,4) Diplomatic resources of inspectors, neutral intermediaries, mediators and arbitrators.
   m2,5) Military resources of local authorities and an international intervention force.

3n) Development
Development of man made objects out of natural and human resources is in continuation of expression a 
universal human activity. Molding an object, it aims at an improvement in realization of human potential.
It is initiated by spiritual, mental, psychological, emotional, biological and bio-mechanical forces in combi-
nations. Only limited by imagination, it reaches across all layers of reality.
3n1) Goal orientation centers on the desired object for in depth attention.
3n2) Means are scientific, artistic and contemplative research, soft and technical skills, experience, 
knowledge, labor, natural resources and financing.
3n3) Creative development generates improved existing, innovative, speculative and visionary objects, 
which did not exist before in construction of future living environments.
3n4) Systematic development expands human freedoms, capabilities and radius of action into the micro-
macroscopic, over ages and with it the frontiers of the thinkable, calculable, do- and usable.
3n5) Qualitative development achieves a qualitative transformation of a human drive into a mental-
human-natural product with merit by applying standards of sound theology, reason, maturity and ethics.
3n6) Large scale and long term systematic, institutionalized developments have generated a multitude of 
differentiated, specialized professional fields and niches.


					0 4		Relation

4a) Relation
Cognition starts out along a relation from the object to the investigator by observation.
It proceeds from the investigator to the public by communication in repetitive steps.
The raw data are carried by energy-matter impulses out of a cause - effect relation to the human senses.
The forces can be eg optical-electro-magnetic, acoustic-mechanical and bio-chemical.

4b) Information
4b1) Raw data are signs on a carrier.
4b2) They become information by a structure with coding, syntax, semantic and pragmatic.
4b3) They require human dignity, truth, verifiability and actuality.
4b4) They require a competent language, an open, heterogenous system, being recognized, formal, in-
tersubjective, neutral, stable, functional with vocabulary, phraseology, pronunciation and grammar.
Language stands at the center of human praxis with text and picture as means of conception, interchan-
ge, spread of knowledge, socialization and discussion of issues.
4b5) A unit of information conveys a single fixed yes/no statement as a measurable quality and quantity.
It represents a specific property of an object of any class.
It can be processed for eg en- and decoding, storage, duplication, distribution, search and review.
4b6) A message comprises a series of information units to convey a meaning within a context.
4b7) Its scaled up function is the increase of knowledge.

4c) Transmission
4c1) Data as sensory signal flow from source to encoder, emitter, channel, receiver, decoder to recipient.
4c2) Encoding ranges from artefact to language, text, picture to mechanical-bio-chemical signal.
4c3) Forces can be eg gravitational, mechanical, optical, electro-magnetic, chemical and bio-chemical.
4c4) Channels are eg the environmental medium, tube, cable and mechanical carrier.
4c5) Modi are directed or non-directed conveyance, conduction, convection and radiation.
4c6) Losses can be by friction, absorption, reflection, dispersion, dissipation, leakage and interference.
4c7) Performance measures are eg universality, practicality, flexibility, reliability and obstacle safety.

4d) Medium
Medium of a connecting relation is a physical object, transmitting from a sender data, energy or matter 
over a distance to a receiver.
3d1) Appearance can be
   d1,1) A signal propagating uniform-non-uniform, bound-unbound solid, liquid, gas, plasma or vacuum.
   d1,2) A bound, stationary device like a conveying belt, cable or signal emitter.
   d1,3) An unbound, independently moving carrier like a van, train or plane.
3d2) Surroundings of a carrier can be vacuum, a material in any state and a force of any kind with speci-
fic conditions of eg light, wind, current, temperature, pressure, shear, height difference and barrier.
3d3) Evaluated is a medium by professional standards of performance, efficiency and costs.


					0 5		Subject

5a) Onto- and phylogenetic development
Anatomical, physiological, psychological, mental capacities of individual organisms and populations have 
developed over geological time spans by evolutionary forces of mutation, adaptation, selection, growth 
and differentiation of specific functions within and between populations and environmental conditions.
5a1) The brain, central, enterally-peripherally extended nervous system, an organic, multi-dimensional, 
variable organ, empowers all mental functions. Its network of ≈1010 neurons generates as neurological 
codes physical, psychological, intellectual and spiritual objects on the level of conscious perception, re-
collection, conception, intention and operation.
5a2) Consciousness is neuronal bio-chemo--electro-magnetic sensory awareness of a short term focused 
item and a long term present background screen, serving as a workbench for mental processing.
5a3) Homo cognitus has formed out anthropological behavior patterns of eg
   a3,1) Flight, adaptation and conquering of challenges.
   a3,2) Search, exploration and discovery of uncharted areas.
   a3,3) Recognition of needs, opportunities, incentives and means for innovations.
   a3,4) Self-knowledge, -improvement, -realization and -determination.
   a3,5) Sharing of experience, traditions, know-how, knowledge and ideas.

5b) Emotions
Emotions as atmosphere of being constitute a distinct un- and conscious psychic reality.
They accompany, anticipating to trailing, synerg- to antagonistically, human motivations and activities.
They are controllable, trainable, manipulable and vary in perceptivity, intensity and duration.
They generate physical feelings, psychic passions and spiritual compassions.
5b1) Physical feelings arise with basic needs as basic emotions.
5b2) Passions unfold out of individual and collective psychic, social and mental needs.
5b3) Compassions reinforce individual and collective spiritual drives towards independence, self-eman-
cipation, standards and enlightenment.
5b4) They introduce positive and negative impulses to all factors of cognition like attention-deflection, 
attraction-rejection, hypersensitivity-stupor and exaggeration-omission.

5c) Way of life
Repetitive activities, the largest part of study, work and social practices, are a locomotive engine to move 
large loads in realization of private and collective endeavors.
5c1) They stream out of directed, corrected and redirected actions into a course of habitual behavior.
5c2) They are tied into a multitude of politically embedded, autopoiesic macro frameworks of local to glob-
al, open to hidden, soft to forcing, minor to dominant relations.
5c3) They promote positive and negative understanding and praxis in all factors of cognition.
5c4) Effects can be diligence-sloth, impartiality-prejudice and altruism-egocentricity.

5d) The senses
A sense is a physiological capacity of an organ to record with receptor cells a specific stimulus.
Body internal receptors record movement, balance, pressure, temperature and pain.
Body external stimulation through seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting or touching is the first, immediate, 
non-alternate source of cognition of objects for reflexive or mediated response.
5d1) Stimulations are filtered for items of interest, others are left below a threshold of consciousness.
5d2) Attention span can be short to long term, low to highly selective and automatic by training.
5d3) The stimulation is neurologically encoded into a dynamic bio-electro-chemical action potential.
5d4) It is passed on by the visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory or somatosensory-kinesthetic cortex to 
the brain lobes for acute experienced sensual-mental perception.
5d5) It is transformed into a present, conscious, constructed, representative image in mental conception.
5d6) Interpreted into a conception are often eg simplicity, pattern, features, organization and coherence.
5d7) Codetermining impulses come from eg questions, motivation, experience, context and environment.
5d8) Performance measures are eg receptive field, sensitivity, resolution, reaction time and reliability.
5d9) Range of observation is limited to the meso-cosmos, the every-day living environment. Instrumental 
detectors enlarge the range to the equally present micro- and macro-cosmos.


5e) Mental capabilities
Mental capabilities are mainly perception, memory, processing and language.
5e1) Perception comprises all activities by internal and external senses.
5e2) Memory stores information for reproduction. It instantly reproduces a stored conception of an object 
in the 'present' of consciousness.
5e3) Processing empowers intentions, conceptions, operations, drafts and expressions.
5e4) Language serves naming, processing, communication, socialization and spread of knowledge.
5e5) Goal oriented, productive processing is by subject and object true treatment.

5f) Experience
Experience registers subjectively all personal and surrounding activities of life.
5f1) Stimulations are filtered for items of interest, others are left below a threshold of consciousness.
5f2) They are acquired in the modes of eg active or passive, re- or previewing, one time or tracking, short 
or long term, accidental or preplanned, autodidactic or institutionalized, sensual or instrumental.
5f3) They are intensified by eg own questions, searches, deliberations, discussions, hands on experi-
ences, failures, restarts and successes to become reflected and reliable.
5f4) They are collected in memory as sensual-empirical data with eg semiotic-semantic values, causes, 
mechanisms, effects, environments, singularities, generalities and expectations.
5f5) They are expanded by reported experiences of other parties and by compiled objective knowledge.
5f6) Their are collated with knowledge and visions about human objects towards maturity to let them 
become reconstructable and understandable.
5f7) They are collated with knowledge and visions about natural objects towards reason to let them 
become reconstructable and explainable.
5f8) They give direction to cognition by intuition, hunch, suspicion, educated guess and analogy.

5g) Self-understanding
Man is centered in his convictions. Life is carried by esprit.
Telos of mind changes anthropological behavior patterns into emancipation based behavior patterns.
It springs out of faith with a set of religious statements or out of a human concept about life to outline inten-
tions and conceptions in relation to man, society, nature and the infinite. Sub-concepts are
5g1) Preconditions are individual and collective autonomy of body and mind with freedoms of inner and outer 
movement and cognition to be able to see, think and act.
5g2) Personal and collective goals.
5g3) Emancipation with self-preservation, -interpretation, -determination and -realization.
5g4) Responsibilities for the betterment of man and environment with values, tasks and means of enlight-
enment, employing language, public discussions, legal regulations and supervision.
5g5) Increases in comprehension with
   g5,1) Expanded knowledge about man, society, nature and God.
   g5,2) Expanded limits of the thinkable, calculable, do- and usable.
   g5,3) Expanded boundaries of man versus man made and natural living environments.
   g5,4) Long term emancipation in cosmic dimensions.
5g6) Unchecked self-serving, the common good disregarding social forces defy cognition.


5h) Historical factors
History compiles investigative tracing, recording and evaluation of time bound activities in all fields of life.
Main intent is to generate a representative cutout of present political-social affairs and their driving forces 
as a living heritage with achievements and failures, seen over millennia against man, nature and God.
History of cognition records ethos, alliances, investments, acquisition of knowledge, means, public dis-
cussions, applications, events and impacts in the differentiating professional fields.
5h1) Applied, industrial, medium term research is promoted out of political-military-scientific-commercial-
social interests. For practical, goal defined molding of man made objects, it strives for knowledge, skills, 
technologies, engineering, organizational structures, designs, patented applications and profit.
5h2) Basic, scientific, long term research is promoted out of discussions about fundamental principles of 
phenomena. For solving theoretical questions, their description, understanding and explanation, it strives 
for knowledge, skills, generalities, predictability, enhanced capabilities and returns in the future.
The unity of science deduces from fundamental quantum physics the special sciences of chemistry, bio-
chemistry, genetics, etc… in a systematic, consistent tree structure.
5h3) R&D utilize basic research results translationally to realize newly made possible better performing, 
modernized, innovative, marketable products and services.

5i) Schools of thought
Schools of thought have bundled cognitive efforts since antique scholarship. Their various epistemic 
approaches to knowledge and life have unfolded a variety of aspects, eg
5i1) Ontology describes deductively being qua being its realities, meanings, categories and modes.
5i2) Idealism claims reality of objects to be mentally constructed and not mind independent.
5i3) A priori reasons claim not to come out of experience, but out of immediate, necessary insight.
5i4) Realism claims reality of objects to be scientifically approximable and independent of thought.
5i5) Empiricism deduces all knowledge from self-verifiable sense-experience.
5i6) Positivism deduces all information from sensory experience, logical and mathematical treatment.
5i7) Materialism deduces all natural and mental phenomena from matter/energy and its interactions.
5i8) Pragmatism demands practical, applicable functionality in addition to theoretical accuracy.
5i9) Existentialism describes the primarily important in- and outward existence of a freely, self-respon-
sibly feeling, thinking and acting human individual in an inauthentic environment.
5i10) Historicism embeds scientific theories into relative, dynamic contexts of place, time and culture.
5i11) Phenomenology reduces deceptions of observable appearances to self-reflective descriptions.
5i12) Analytical philosophy employs non-speculative, critical, logical, linguistic analyses.
5i13) Critical theory investigates mechanisms of power, misusing eg reason, science and technology.
5i14) Post-structuralism complements traditional theories with a plurality of heterogeneous perspectives.
5i15) Spirituality recognizes the transcendental aspects of all objects.

5j) Present day trends
Interests of cognition have penetrated the political-scientific-industrial-social landscape.
5j1) Professional fields are expanding, differentiating, specializing. Growth of knowledge is exponential.
5j2) The sciences have generated a functionally intertwining technological civilization.
5j3) Information has become a production factor aside of capital, natural resources and labor.
5j4) Globalization opens up global markets by rapid transport of people, goods, money and data.
5j5) Economic players exploit human and natural resources often with irreparable damages.
5j6) Political-military-economic players enforce their hegemonic policies in an environment of global con-
flicts with image fascism throughout all channels of public opinion.

5k) Institutional factors
Private and public institutions can promote, channel and inhibit contemplative, aesthetic and scientific 
research in all fields at any stage according to their philosophy of research and desired objectives.
5k1) Spectrum of institutional activities ranges from a single project, professional field, application, natu-
ral resource, human resource, structure, process, population group to the environment.
5k2) Means are eg political, legal, financial, commercial, medial, technical and human resources.
5k3) Competitive research requirements have multiplied into educationally trained, systematic, institu-
tionalized, generations spanning efforts in all fields worldwide.


5l) Codetermining factors
The political-social character of a society is codetermined by its environments, changes and boundaries.
5l1) Environments are long term, in- and external variables of life. They comprise eg the political system, 
legal framework, social conditions, human and material infra structures, media, mental, mentality states, 
social - individual weights, mass effects, the natural environment and their interactions.
5l2) Changes are alterations of essential areas of life and their environments. They are caused by eg 
changing motivations, opportunities, improvements, deteriorations and obstacles.
5l3) Boundaries are man's limits of physical, mental and spiritual capabilities in his environmental con-
ditions, which can be enlarged by reason, maturity, faith and long term systematic research.

5m) Inhibiting factors
Cognition inhibiting factors are man made artificial barriers by causes of error, irrationality and intent.
5m1) Errors are deficiencies in intellect, affecting a point and chain of argumentation.
5m2) Irrationalities are aberrations of intellect and spirit like myths, idols, animisms, superstitions, preju-
dices, illusions, wishful thoughts, ideologies, undifferentiated generalizations and theories.
5m3) Intentional deceptions and violence are defects in drives, mentality, intellectuality and spirituality. 
They originate out of narrow, vile archaic notions, criminal inclinations and hate of man for a gain at the 
expense of the natural environment, another person's belongings and another person himself.
   m3,1) Targets of gain are mostly self-image, language and social reality with advantageous power 
   structures to exploit political-military-technological-economic-financial-social disparities.
   m3,2) Targets of corruption are social standards, social forces and entire populations.
   m3,3) Targets of elimination are first political-social opponents and watch dog organizations.
5m4) Deception by appeasement, distortion, irrationality and suppression corrupts cognition to manipu-
late human perceptions, understandings, intentions, communications and actions.
   m4,1) A faulty factor leads to a distorted representation of an object's property.
   m4,2) A faulty chain of factors expands into a distorted representation of an entire issue.
   m4,3) A faulty standard multiplies into a distorted representation of an issue and its environment.
   m4,4) A faulty worldview, in the sciences a paradigm, opens the door to gross political corruption.
   A paradigm is a traditional epistemological model to gain by theoretical, methodological and environ-
   mental assumptions and conclusions cognitive success with valid knowledge.
   m4,5) Programmatic deception leads to population wide information interception, screening, filtering, 
   selection and manipulation as means for public opinion, action and justification control.
5m5) Violence against a man made object and man for impairment is done by abuse, attack and misuse.
   m5,1) Abusive is eg illegal surveillance, self-degrading the offender and torturing the victim.
   m5,2) Attack is physical force by a tool, designed to do damage.
   m53) Misuses is physical force by a tool, designed to amend.
5m6) Their combination is image fascism, enforcing means of deception with means of violence.
As a tool of power of totalitarianism it leads from programmatic technological and administrative control 
of the entire information flow to individual genetic-physiological-psychological profiling to clandestine and 
open political mass murder with elimination of hostile informants, flow of data and recipients.

5n) Ethics
The task of ethics is to take a stand against gross criminal corruption with disastrous consequences.
5n1) Its intention is to preserve ethical freedom, where not a major inhibiting factor runs to its self-de-
structive end. Preserved are basic human-natural values with the freedoms of truth and cognition for ac-
cess to information, its sources, free flow, distribution, public discussion and application.
5n2) It appeals at the conscience of the times, a conviction with universal principles.
5n3) It mobilizes human esprit with a politically aware, balanced, critical, self-cleaning view on life.
5n4) Its approach is by case, globally probing populations for open and hidden man disparaging, criminal 
practices, being often indicators for misuses of power by spiritual, political, military, scientific, technologi-
cal, commercial, cultural, social information gathering and publicizing institutions.


					0 6		Summary

Access to all objects is by cognition.
It is the necessary starting point of successful human endeavors.
It adopts a position and perspective to initiate the process of questioning, seeing, thinking and acting to 
be able to treat human, natural and spiritual objects according to their true properties and dimensions.
As first bottleneck of action, it stands up front against errors, irrationalities and interferences.
One faulty step derails the process. Its consequences can be estimated, where the positive weight of a 
factor is determined by hypothetical simulation and the negative weight by corrected rerun.

6a) Achievements
6a1) Antique scholarship to modern research have taken a scientific approach to cognition.
Huge advances have been made over the last three centuries in the natural sciences, logic, mathematics 
and technologies with expansion of the radius of action and generation of power and wealth.
6a2) Global players, power elites and broad social efforts have institutionally, systematically, competitive-
ly, generations spanning promoted many factors of cognition with research and development.
Today, there is not a political-military-economic-social endeavor that is not based on research efforts.

6b) Failures
6b1) Man, the primary factor of cognition, has been largely left in Morpheus arms.
   b1,1) He does not see his position against nature and God. He cannot survive in cosmic dimensions.
   b1,2) He does not see his intentions, a brutal creature, applying any means for his advancement.
   b1,3) He cannot effectively handle conflict solving between institutions and alliances of power.
   b1,4) He is devoid of self-understanding and ethics across the board.
6b2) Global players and power elites have realize their ambitions of social programming institutionally, 
systematically, concentration camp like, mass effectively with B-C-R micro weapons of mass destruction 
and escalated them into a global, clandestine dirty war. They curtailed factors of cognition to cut out of 
public awareness their information control by interception, profiling, manipulation and elimination.
Facades pretend responsible integration of scientific-technological advancements into society, an envi-
ronmental paradigm, - however, in image fascism they lie about life and creation, procreation and causes 
of procreation, death and causes of death, constitutionality and human rights, faith, reason and maturity.

6c) Planetary catastrophes
6c1) Continuing are global problems of hunger, epidemics, inequity of wealth, overpopulation, human 
rights violations, expulsion, torture, murder, civil strife, war, environmental depletion and destruction.
6c2) Threatened is a 'human hand directed, accelerated evolution' by electro-magnetic-mechanical and 
bio-chemical-genetic means towards a cyborg and a chimera with augmented capabilities.
6c3) The sum of multiple, escalating gross corruptions in excess of man's boundaries out of unchecked 
lower instincts will lead after colonialism, two world wars and genocide today with modern technologies 
of exploitation of natural resources inevitably to planetary catastrophes and with mass murder machiner-
ies against entire countries and populations to self-extinction of mankind.

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